The Chronology Of the World


Date, Time, Era



3000-1500 BC

South Asia

Harappan civilization:

One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of the ancient world is the Harappan civilization. This culture existed along the Indus River in present day Pakistan. 

It was named after the city of Harappa which it was centered around.  Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were the greatest achievements of the Indus valley civilization.

These cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout. Over one hundred other towns and villages also existed in this region.

The Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language.


The Harappan civilization experienced its height around 2500 BC and began to decline about 2000 BC. The causes of its downfall are not certain. One theory suggests that the Aryan people migrated into this area. Aryan religious texts and human remains in Mohenjo-Daro suggest that the Aryans may have violently entered the area, killing its inhabitants and burning the cities.


The Indus Valley (or Harappan) Civilization was the largest civilization in the world during its reign from 3000 to 1500 BC. This culture was unique in that its cities were extraordinarily similar throughout a geographically widespread area, yet there is no physical evidence of a central unifying government. Regardless, the civilization appears to have been very peaceful, with an emphasis on trade rather than agriculture or war.

1500-1200 BC


Aryan Migrations

563-483 BC


The Buddha

483 BC

Buddhism / Sri Lanka

King Vijaya lands in Sri Lanka

The Buddha passes away.

322-185 BC


King Asoka, of India.

These words were spoken by Asoka, the third emperor of the Mauryan dynasty of India and the best known ancient ruler of India.

200 BC


Sri Lanka

Greek geographer Eratosthenes, in his map of the world (200 BC) called Sri Lanka "the southern limit of the known world" by the Greek word "Taprobane".

161 137 BC

Sri Lanka

Sinhalese prince Dutthagamini (161-137 BC) over Ellalan (205-161 BC), the Tamil king.

4 AD

Sri Lanka

Dipavamsa was the oldest Buddhist chronicle written in the Pali language, and is said to have been compiled around the 4th Century AD. The contents are based on stories and fables narrated by people.

6 AD

Sri Lanka

This was followed by Mahavamsa, which was based on the Dipavamsa, written by Mahanama, a Buddhist monk in the 6th Century AD, another Pali rendition

150 AD


Ptolemy's map of 150 AD

1153 1186 AD

Sri Lanka

Parakrama Bahu I (1153-1186)

1411 1466 AD

Sri Lanka

Bhuvaneka Bahu, an adopted son of Parakramaa Bahu VI (1411-1466).

1505 AD

Sri Lanka

A Portuguese fleet under the command of Don Lourenco de Almedia, forced by winds and waves, was tossed into Galle, the harbor located on the southern coast of the island.

1469 - 1511

Sri Lanka

When the Portuguese arrived in Ceylon, Vira Parakrama Bahu (1484-1509) was the king of Kotte, Senasammata Vikrama Bahu (1469-1511) was the king of the Hill country and Pararajasekeran (1469-1511) was the king of the Tamil kingdom.



In 1638, the Dutch came to Ceylon at the invitation of Rajasingha II (1635-1687), the king of the hill country called the Kingdom of Kandy, and entered into an accord with the monarch. The Dutch agreed to drive the Portuguese out of the maritime provinces of the island. They first captured Batticaloa, and in 1639 they captured the harbor city of Trincomalee. The Dutch carried on their war and utterly destroyed the power of Portuguese in Ceylon by capturing Colombo in 1656 and finally the Tamil kingdom in 1658, thus bringing the entire littoral areas of the country under their domination.